Functional programming

So, what is the “functional programming” in the title about, then? Here’s a very brief characterization, for those who haven’t heard of it before. I’m mostly thinking of the Haskell programming language, and there’s a good explanation and many resources at

In a nutshell, functional programming restricts itself to programming with values, rather than with actions. Most programming languages are “imperative”, focussing on the actions: the program describes a series of actions to perform, and only makes incidental use of values in passing; there is a sublanguage of statements (such as assignments to variables, loops, conditional choices) and a sublanguage of¬†expressions (such as for the computation yielding the value to be assigned to a variable in an assignment statement, and for the condition on which a conditional depends).

In contrast, pure functional programming languages dispense with the statements, and make use only of expressions. This might seem very limiting, restricting programs to variations on a mere pocket calculator. But of course, a useful functional language extends the grammar of expressions, so that they cover much more than arithmetic; indeed, expressions typically encompass complex data structures and recursive function definitions, and so are every bit as expressive as statements. Moreover, it turns out that programs expressed in terms of expressions rather than statements are usually shorter (many of the details of the equivalent imperative program are redundant)¬†and simpler (because there are no assignment statements, variables don’t vary, and so the familiar equational reasoning principles of high-school algebra are applicable throughout).

The characterization of programming languages as “functional” versus “imperative” is by no means exhaustive; there are many other styles too. But many of them are also discovering the joys of functional programming; for example, good practice in object-oriented programming states that value objects should be immutable.


About jeremygibbons

Jeremy Gibbons is Professor of Computing in Oxford University Department of Computer Science, and a fan of functional programming and patterns of computation.
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